Three major infectious diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

According to the WHO, the "Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)" affect the lives of more than 1 billion people in 149 countries worldwide and cause billions of dollars in damage each year to developing countries1. Many of these people live in conditions of poor sanitation and exposure to infected mosquitoes and livestock. Infections, including the three major infectious diseases HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases, not only spread individual economic hardship, but also cause poverty throughout the country and region. Breaking this vicious circle that binds poverty and communicable diseases is imperative in order to ensure both economic growths in developing countries and human security for all. The goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) states that these infectious diseases should be ended by 2030. The WHO endorsed the NTD roadmap 2021 – 2030 to facilitate efforts towards a sustainable healthcare system among a broader range of stakeholders and countries impacted by NTDs2.

Three major infectious diseases

HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are the three major infectious diseases which are still prevalent mainly in low- and middle-income countries, and claim over 2.5 million lives each year. As for the three major infectious diseases that are threats to human beings, the momentum of the spread of infections has been decreasing as a result of many international supports over the past years. On the other hand, it is thought that the progress of measures is slowing down due to social and economic issues such as political instability in countries with an epidemic, the large economic burden necessary for countermeasures, and lack of funds, as well as the problems of fragile medical systems and drug resistance, in addition the impact of new pandemics such as COVID 19.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

Neglected tropical diseases Infections by parasites or bacteria that are prevalent mainly in tropical and subtropical regions have not been considered as major diseases by developed countries, and therefore, are called "Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)".
According to the WHO, 20 diseases are defined as NTDs including Dengue, Rabies, Trachoma, Buruli ulcer, Yaws, Leprosy, Chagas disease, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Leishmaniases, Taeniasis (Cysticercosis), Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) , Echinococcosis, Foodborne trematodiases, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis (river blindness) , Schistosomiasis, Soil-transmitted helminthiases, Mycetoma, Scabies and other ectoparasites, and Snakebite envenoming3.